Wednesday, November 27, 2019
Chapter 1- Kinematics Regents Physics Essays (420 words) - Motion Chapter 1- Kinematics Regents Physics One-Dimensional Motion - Speed vs. Velocity 1. SPEED 3190875914400 An object is considered moving when its position changes with time. The speed of an object is the distance the object moves per unit of time . Since we are talking about distance and not displacement, speed is a scalar quantity. The average speed of an object is given by the following equation: v=dt The unit for distance is meters (m) and the unit for time is seconds (s) which makes speed have units of m/s . If speed remains the same throughout the time period, the object is said to have constant speed or uniform motion . If the speed varies, the motion is non - uniform . For example: The school bus covers a distance of 400 meters in 20 seconds. What is the average speed of the bus? Johnny rides his bicycle 40 meters north and 20 meters east in 10 seconds. What is Johnny's average speed ? A bowling ball races down the 19 meter alley in 3 seconds. What is the ball's average speed? 2. VELOCITY The velocity of an object is the time rate of change of its displacement . Therefore, velocity is a vector quantity having both magnitude and direction. In velocity problems, make sure you find the displacement first! The average velocity of an object is given by the equation: v=dt Pretty much the same equation as before yielding the same units (m/s) ; only this time you are using displacement ( direction matters!!!) Make sure your answer includes direction. For example: Johnny rides his bicycle 40 meters north and 20 meters east in 10 seconds. What is Johnny's average velocity ? A fighter jet flies 3 km west and then 2 km east in 8 minutes. Determine the jet's average velocity. (Remember to convert!) Lucy runs to her classroom which is 20 meters away. She forgets her physics book in her locker and must return 20 meters in the direction from whence she came. If her total trip takes 3 minutes, what is Lucy's average velocity? Ron takes his car out for a joy ride and travels 400 meters north. He then travels 100 meters east and picks up his buddy Chris. They then stop at a 7-11 which is 200 meters south from Chris's house. If the total trip takes 10 minutes, determine the average velocity of Ron's car. (Draw a picture!)
Saturday, November 23, 2019
5 Examples of Faulty Parallel Structure 5 Examples of Faulty Parallel Structure 5 Examples of Faulty Parallel Structure By Mark Nichol One type of grammatical errors seen frequently is that of faulty parallel structure, in which corresponding words or phrases do not match to create a logical syntax. Here are five examples of sentences in which parallel structure is flawed, with a discussion of each error. 1. She played at San Francisco venues such as the Avalon, the Fillmore, and Carousel Ballroom. In isolation, the names of each of these venues should be preceded by the: Ã¢â¬Å"the Avalon,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"the Fillmore,Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"the Carousel Ballroom.Ã¢â¬ When listed together in one sentence, the same is true: Ã¢â¬Å"She played at San Francisco venues such as the Avalon, the Fillmore, and the Carousel Ballroom.Ã¢â¬ 2. IÃ¢â¬â¢m not just upset that Mary told Jane, but also that she was so rude. The writer is upset about not only A but also B, so the verb should precede the counterpoint phrases Ã¢â¬Å"not just thatÃ¢â¬ (the three words of which should not be interrupted by another) and Ã¢â¬Å"also thatÃ¢â¬ : Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢m upset not just that Mary told Jane but also that she was so rude.Ã¢â¬ Note also that the comma before Ã¢â¬Å"but alsoÃ¢â¬ is unnecessary. 3. The site does not look at opinions or predictions, but statements that the general public would be interested in knowing the truth about. Just as in the previous example, the opposing phrases (in this case, Ã¢â¬Å"not atÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"but atÃ¢â¬ ) should both follow the verb they share (in this case, look, which should not intervene in the first of the two phrases): Ã¢â¬Å"The site looks not at opinions or predictions but at statements that the general public would be interested in knowing the truth about.Ã¢â¬ 4. The website evaluates only statements that are clear, precise, and are not obviously true. Three adjectives listed in this sentence- clear, precise, and true- can share a verb, or each can be preceded by its own verb, but this sentence does not apply either option; the first and third adjectives have their own verbs but precise doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t. The correct alternatives are Ã¢â¬Å"The website evaluates only statements that are clear, precise, and not obviously trueÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"The website evaluates only statements that are clear, are precise, and are not obviously true.Ã¢â¬ 5. The virus is usually picked up through contact with an infected person, consuming food or drinks contaminated with the virus, or by touching a contaminated surface and then touching your mouth. Similar to the previous example, in this sentence, the three items in this list can share a preposition, or each can have its own (not necessarily the same one used three times). The choices are Ã¢â¬Å"The virus is usually picked up through contact with an infected person, consuming food or drinks contaminated with the virus, or touching a contaminated surface and then touching your mouthÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"The virus is usually picked up through contact with an infected person, by consuming food or drinks contaminated with the virus, or by touching a contaminated surface and then touching your mouth.Ã¢â¬ Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Grammar category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:100 Exquisite AdjectivesHow to Play HQ Words: Cheats, Tips and TricksGrammatical Case in English
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Al Ain Distribution Company - Essay Example Al Ain Distribution Company Al Ain is a city found in European Arab Emirates and is the largest of three other cities. It lies in the East of Abu Dhabi bordering Oman. Al Ain city receives rainfall in specific months of the year. The inhabitants of Al Ain experience high temperatures during summer and most of the people prefer living in the desert area. Ã¢â¬ËGarden City of the GulfÃ¢â¬â¢ is the nickname given to Al Ain by particular individuals due to the green nature, cleanliness, and well-lined streets, and haven. Late Bars and night clubs in Al Ain offer drinks at a higher cost (Christopher, 2013). Content and Process theories of motivation Motivation is all that individuals are required in order obtain the morale to work hard. Both content and process theories of motivation are of great importance to leaders of specific organizations. Such theories play a role in the behavior of individuals working in different organizations and undertaking different tasks (Cooper et al, 2012 ). Content theories of motivation indicate that the behavior portrayed by individuals at work highly depends on their desires to meet specific needs. Content theories primarily have concerns on the goals and needs of individuals (Andrzej, 2010). There are four content theories namely Hierarchy of needs, ERG (Existence Needs, Relatedness Needs, and Growth Needs) Theory, Two Factor Theory, and Achievement Need Theory. The process theories deal with processes involved in issues of human beings (Seibt, 2003). It involves factors that measure effort of employees, how to improve efforts, and how to transform the behavior of employees. There are three process theories namely Expectancy Theory, Goal Theory, and AdamÃ¢â¬â¢s Equity Theory. Expectancy theory asserts that behavior of particular individuals depends on the alertness of the mind. Goal theory indicates that for motivation and performance to be high, managers should set particular objectives (challenging and accepted) and should a vail an outcome of the situation. Equity theory denotes that individuals feel satisfied after observing reasonable rewards in the environment. The management of Al Ain Company uses process theories of motivation in that it asserts on the necessity to set specific goals. This is evident as the management further illustrates the importance of feedback to both the employees and managers (Daft et al, 2010). The most useful theory Determination of the most useful theory is through the behaviors that individuals portray. In organizations, the most appropriate theories to apply are the Process Theories because they focus on how human beings think and behave to get what they want. It is of significance in motivating employees. This is because individuals with set goals put more efforts in their work unlike individuals working under no set objectives. Another reason is that rewards are vital elements in motivation since it is a factor increasing the morale of employees. Motivational techniqu es and rewards used by the company Motivational techniques are tactics used to instill motivation in employees at the workplace (Pride et al, 2012). Some of the techniques praise high performing employees. This is a way to increase employee morale. Motivational rewards are either positive or negative reinforcement. The type of reinforcement determines the ability of employees to perceive tasks that they undertake. The techniques used in the company involve the functional and divisional structures. The
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
Four Stages of Leadership - Essay Example Teamwork is also essential for any success of a leader (Stagish, 2006). This is because when a leader does not work with the employees, but instead issues orders, the employees can fail to work effectively. Through teamwork, the satisfaction of the employees will increase. There will be the creation of good ideas that will come out of the association between the leaders and employees (Kramer, 2002). For people to trust the leaders in a company, the leader has to portray some behaviors deemed ethical by the society. The leader should be honest in all the work that he does in the organization (Porter-OÃ¢â¬â¢Grady, 2010). He should be sincere when dealing with all employees and not exhibit double standard while issuing orders. The leaders should also have integrity. This means that, in all the decisions that he has to make, he should have the same stand. He should be able to show competence in his dealings. This means that the basis of his decisions should not rely on his emotions or his desires. The leader should also depict intelligence to their juniors. The employees will thus trust the leaderÃ¢â¬â¢s opinion, since his intellect can be trusted. Vital behaviors are necessary for a leader to adapt and ensure that he achieves teamwork in all his dealings. The leader has to ensure he understands the benefits of teamwork. He should know that, through teamwork, creative ideas could crop up (Shockley-Zalabak, 2010). The leader should thus aim to encourage all employees to participate actively in meetings and jobs that they do. This will lead to the employees helping each other the moment they get a problem. The result will be a better time management as less time is wasted. Second level The organization should adapt the synergic approach. I believe that leaders of an organization can work well with the employees to make certain that they realize the objectives of the organization as well as benefit the society. This can be a milestone in increasing the growth of t he company (Holmes, 2005). The company needs to ensure the employees understand the need to please the society and achieve the goals of the company. The leader of the company should share and find ways of achieving the goals of the company through teamwork. The employees will then learn to help each other in the company, especially when they are in the same field in the organization. This is because when the employees work together, they learn to come up with an idea that works very well in a situation. The leader can analyze the effect of the change in the active participation of employees in the team (Salas, 2001). This way, they will appreciate teamwork, internalize it and use it in all the activities they do in the company. The leaders should also build their trust in the employees. They can do this by sharing with them and showing them that they can be trusted. Leaders should understand the imperativeness of earning the trust of the employees. Their consistency and competence a re what the employees will use to judge and trust them. A leader can openly tell the employees that he can be trusted, and act in ways that make the employees believe him. Third Level The purpose of the company should be to offer the best services for the clients of the organization. They should be very kind and respectful to them regardless of the attitude of the clients. This means that they should be very tolerant will all the clients. The employees should also be able to make
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Personal Development Plan Essay Introduction This project development plan is a write up of the theoretical underpinning and the technical experiments or of the reengineering undertaken in order to answer the question(s) posed by the research topic. The project proposal should be supported by a list of current references and an annotated bibliography. The proposal must include A good development plan is not a easy document. To be influential, it has to be built approximately a development model beached in real-world skill. It has to be cautiously crafted to fit the needs of the person being urbanized. It has to comprise job assignments that build leadership skills. And it has to be hold up by the organization and incorporated into a development philosophy that views planning documents as the commencement of the development expedition, not the end (Ametrano, I. M., 2003, 190-193). During the research of this network based assignment I have equally focus upon my personal development and look for to become accustomed the worldwide assessment of performance more especially to the personal development in networking. It is based mainly on WAN based networking for Nokia Incorporation The primary four part scores seek to gauge Personal grooming as a professional figure when I was capturing data, the aptitude to create a living in a dynamic-based company like Nokia. Aim of Project To design and implement a network model for an international organisation to get connections between two branches. To also examine the network model to make sure it met the performance and compatibility requirements. Objective Of Research No doubt, the objective of this network based project is a development plan for multier national company is an important part of any effectual leadership-development system at two levels. At the organizational level, these plans make sure that the next age group of leaders will have the skills and skills required to define and implement the corporations strategies. According to this research work at the personal level, it forces me as future leader to focus on what needs to be done in order to grow. When done right, the individual development plan becomes a contract future leaders make with themselves and the organization about the things they want to do or to become. The plan creates discipline and a good plan creates motivation. If we analyzed then we come to know about basic object of this research based project: 1. Research into different area networks (LAN, WAN, MAN, etc) 2. Research into few network modelling and simulation software. (OPNET guru Ã¢â¬ ¦etc) 3. Critical evaluation on the chosen area network (WAN) 4. Critical evaluation on the chosen network modelling and simulation software(OPNET guru) 5. To illustrate the issues to produce a better performance of a WAN 6. Using network modelling and simulation software(OPNET guru) to create a simulation for the designed network model 7. Implement a prototype to demonstrate the simulation of the network. 8. Testing the prototype to ensure it performs and its performance of the network met the requirements. No doubt, the worth network systems of Nokia is a ground of hypercompetitive and personal development spirited individuals were look at in an example of successful people. As predictable, people higher in hypercompetitiveness and in personal development competitiveness were together further possible to support values connected to self-contained uniqueness such as attainment, hedonism, and a determined for an exciting and demanding life, but merely hypercompetitives authorized the worth of power and control over others. Furthermore, the data point to that people higher in personal development competitiveness were extra prone to support values linked to ensembled uniqueness. In exacting, they powerfully endorsed values linked with social concern, that is, with caring regarding the well-being of others and by treating them by admiration and as equals, whereas hypercompetitives uttered a lack of such concern. Discussion centered on the socialization procedure and how it can foster the development of dissimilar competitive orientations (Barak, A., 2005, 471-476). Strengths And Weaknesses During The Research Following strengths and weaknesses during this Research I have developed in my self and it is consist of eight part scores are derived directly from the work of my research 1. Self-esteem: An individuals insight of self-worth as well as peers depicted value or feelings of significance of self during this technical research. 2. Coping Skills: Individuals aptitude to develop and use effectual skills needed to total tasks successfully during this technical research. 3. Positive Assertiveness: Positive actions that are heading for to unpleasant and defensive strategies for objective attainment during this technical research. 4. Locus of Control: Full receipt and faith that personal achievement is not a matter of luck, but rather personal decision making during this technical research. 5. Team Membership: An individuals incessant recognition and actions are for eternity in full agreement by values and practices of possess group membership during this technical research. 6. Sympathy: An individuals sustained ability and carry out to sympathize and feel the pains of every people and animals during this technical research. 7. Self-efficacy: The full work out of control from side to side personal expectations by the essential expansion of actions to total task productively during this technical research. 8. Caring: Whatever happens to one person or animal anywhere in the globe is significant to all people all over the place. Developmental Needs Personal development is supreme in sustaining and improving the functions of societies of any form. Maturity, as a function of personal development, is that condition or time of life at which a person is careful fully developed socially, intellectually, emotionally, physically, and morally. For complete personal development during technical research is the final objective of human development according to computer expert idea of self-actualization. Throughout this research and at work the professional ethics have been to make sure that I have to learn to live and produce together in peace environment for a good performance and agreement in such a way that each one stands to benefit from every others full contribution in upholding the values deemed significant for the betterment of organization. Deliverables Within The Research Proposal This infrastructure can be federal, state, wide or corporate. In this proposed network system few live models of the infrastructure will be subjected to steady attacks of viruses for weaknesses of clients and server relations. Ã¢â¬ ¢ End-users of security: is another good aspect of proposed network. End users of security are frequently forced to deploy technology without field-testing. The proposed facility at Nokia will provide a place for end-users to test out security configurations. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Developers of security: The proposed network will offer a trial setting for developers to organize versions of their products. The Nokia can also serve as a test bed for interoperation among dissimilar vendors. Ã¢â¬ ¢ WAN Researchers: The Nokia will be intended to offer outstanding surroundings to behavior state of the WAN research in computer security and security tool development. By its very nature information declaration is a multidisciplinary research area for proposed network. While most organizations that carry out explore in computer security focal point exclusively on the technical issues, it is proposing a truthfully multidisciplinary endeavor with ability from all regions. It is this amalgamation of technology, business issues, strategy concerns and ethics that construct our program exclusive and will permit us to manufacture extremely capable researchers and IT specialists. In this proposed study selected to separate information pledge in six explore efforts; Interruption detection, attack broadminded networks, rejection of service, Cyber rule, digital government, and e-commerce, Wireless communications and mobile security. Declaration Of New Skills Acquired And Old One That Were Strengthened Due to this network based research the benefits resulting from participation are a function of the superiority and quantity of attempt for my research attempt. For instance, my positive struggle is related to the positive association among grades and the amount of thinker effort put into studying, organizing a campus-wide event requires further effort and is potentially a extra powerful learning knowledge than only attending the event. Those involved in the provision and exploitation of information require certain basic personal qualities as well as professional or technical skills and qualifications. You need only take a detailed look at current job advertisements to get some idea of what is being sought by todays employer. Dynamic and forward thinking, ability to work well under pressure, strong interpersonal skills, enthusiastic self-starter, good communication and team working skills, well developed IT skills, ability to teach client groups, project management skills, sense of humour (Elliott, R., 2003, 443-467). Four of the eight part scores are incorporated inside the Internal and Personal areas of ones life spaced; while the further four part scores are from the External and unfriendly areas (Crutchfield, 2000, 162-169). 1. Home: The period connecting to research is the untimely rearing of the child and the hold up system that is concerned in that period of life. 2. Emotional: The feeling and emotional development in relation to interacting with others during this project. 3. Moral: Acceptance and following of the rules and laws of the land and becoming a role model for others during this project. 4. Health: Physical and mental health of individual as displayed in the personal development process during this project. 6. Social: The interrelations among the individual and the rest of society during this project. 7. Survival: The sustained enlargement of an individual and his/her ability to influence the environment and others during this project. 8. Race: The general receiving of all others and the aptitude to interrelate by them in a significant way during this project. Conclusion In opening any conversation on personal development during this project it has been noticeable that the initial response has usually been based on an assumption that the topic under discussion is training. Whilst this plays an important part, personal development is a broader process, concerned with motivation, attitudes and personal qualities, as well as job-related skills (Eriksen, K.,2003, 120-133). No doubt this research reveals to put it simply, it is a constant process in which the individual seeks to enhance his or her knowledge, abilities and skills, and/or develop new ones; a process of continuous self-building and realisation of his or her full potential. It takes place by linking abilities with preferences to achieve personal goals, and applies to all aspects of the individuals life (Gershefski, 2004, 233-247). For the purposes of this book it is in the context of the work situation that personal development is considered, but development of a professional nature and the resultant job satisfaction is likely to have a positive effect on life outside the work situation (LaCrosse, 2004, 170-172). In concluding end with the help of this research I came to know that the Nokia IT Network Administrators have worked with quite a few local law enforcement agencies to offer computer forensics support, counsel, and preparation for international connectivity purpose. The Nokia can be used to offer these services to law enforcement. Reference Ametrano, I. M., Pappas, J. G. (2003). Client-perceptions of counselors-in-training: The effects of sex and gender role orientation. Counselor Education Supervision, 35(3), 190-193. Bachelor, A. (2001). Comparison and relationship to outcome of diverse dimensions of the helping alliance as seen by client and therapist. Psychotherapy, 25, 227-240. Barak, A., LaCrosse, M. B. (2005). Multidimensional perception of counselor behavior. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 22, 471476. Braden, R., Ed., Zhang, L., Berson, S., Herzog, S., and S. Jamin, Resource ReSerVation Protocol (RSVP) Version 1 Functional Specification, RFC 2205, September 2004 Baskett, F., Chandy, M., Muntz, R., and Palacios, F. Open, Closed, and Mixed Networks of Queues with Different Classes of Customers. Journal of the Association for Computing Machinery 22, 2 (2005), 248-260 Cooke, M., Kipnis, D. (2002). Influence tactics in psychotherapy. Journal of Counseling Clinical Psychology, 54(1), 22-26. Corrigan, J. D., Schmidt, L. D. (2003). Development and validation of revisions in the Counselor Rating Form. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 30(1), 64-75. Crutchfield, L. B., Baltimore, M. L., Felfeli, M., Worth, S. (2000). Empathic responding skills across counselor education training tracks: A comparison study. Journal of Humanistic Counseling, 38(3), 162-169. Downing, T. K., Smaby, M. H., Maddux, C. D. (2001). A study of the transfer of group counseling from training to practice. The Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 26, 156-176. Elliott, R., James, E. (2003). Varieties of client experience in psychotherapy: An analysis of the literature. Clinical Psychology Review, 9, 443-467. Eriksen, K., McAuliffe, G. (2003). A measure of counselor competency. Counselor Education Supervision, 43(2), 120-133. Gershefski, J. J., Arnkoff, D. B., Glass, C. R., Elkin, I. (2004). Clients perceptions of treatment for depression: I. Helpful aspects. Psychotherapy Research, 6(4), 233-247. Howley, D. (2003). Performance assessment in medical education. Evaluation the Health Professions, 27(3), 285-303. LaCrosse, M. B., Barak, A. (2004). Differential perception of counselor behavior. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 23, 170-172.
Thursday, November 14, 2019
People use several different classification systems to help organize a complex society. For example, scientists use a system composed of hierarchies in order to place animals in their proper kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species. By creating this classification system, people of society are better able to understand the relationships that these animals have with each other. Just as scientists use this hierarchy to organize animals, people use the concept of gender to classify their own kind. However, many people fail to realize that gender, unlike the system of hierarchies used by scientists to classify animals, is not biologically based. While sex is a biological concept, gender can be defined as the sociological, psychological, and cultural attributes that society associates with sex. Thus, society creates gender roles, and, accordingly, Ã¢â¬Å"does gender.Ã¢â¬ In other words, people require that others act out the gender roles set by society if they want to be part of the social norm. The purpose of this paper, then, is to first examine literature which discusses ways in which society Ã¢â¬Å"does genderÃ¢â¬ , and then examine the manner in which authors of childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s books promote these gender roles that society has assigned. Judith LorberÃ¢â¬â¢s article entitled, Ã¢â¬Å"Night to His Day: The Social Construction of GenderÃ¢â¬ (Lorber, 1994) is one example of a piece of literature that examines Ã¢â¬Å"doing gender.Ã¢â¬ In this article, she argues that the concept of gender exists because of socialization; that is, society teaches that certain characteristics should be associated with boys while other characteristics should be associated with girls. As aforementioned, in order to demonstrate why society uses gender classifications from birth, Lorber says that people must look at gender as a social institution in that Ã¢â¬Å"gender is one of the major ways that human beings organize their livesÃ¢â¬ (Lorber, 1994). One of the ways that people allocate others for performing tasks in society, then, is through gender classification. After discussing socialization theory, Lorber goes on to give several examples of how people Ã¢â¬Å"do genderÃ¢â¬ in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society. For example, she discusses how men with baby carriers are stared at approvingly on the bus because these men are seen as changing the role of fathers more towards the domestic end of the spectrum, a role that was previously played only... ...ly. While WilderÃ¢â¬â¢s characters exhibit traits that help to reinforce the gender norms created by society, Rowling seems to suggest that life is more interesting when these traditional gender roles are bent, just as life is more exciting at HogwartÃ¢â¬â¢s than at the Dursley household. Therefore, in order for males and females to feel comfortable taking advantage of the plethora of opportunities that are available to them, members of society must strive to bend the gender roles that they have assigned. Works Cited Lorber, Judith. Ã¢â¬Å"Night to His Day: The Social Construction of GenderÃ¢â¬ Excerpts from: Paradoxes of Gender (Chapter 1) by Judith Lorber, 1994 Yale University Press. Web. http://faculty.ucc.edu/english-chewning/SocialConstructionOfGender.pdf Messner, Michael. Ã¢â¬Å"Boyhood, Organized Sports, and the Construction of MasculinitiesÃ¢â¬ Journal of Contemporary Ethnography January 1990 vol. 18 no. 4 416-444 http://www.sagepub.com/sites/default/files/upm-binaries/18602_Chapter_5.pdf Rowling, J. K. Harry Potter and the SorcererÃ¢â¬â¢s Stone. New York City: Scholastic, 1997. Print. Wilder, Laura Ingalls. Little House in the Big Woods. New York: HarperCollins Publishers. 1953.
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
Our nationÃ¢â¬â¢s dedication in eradicating poverty has indeed created a great impact in the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s image. The humanitarian programs of the government has effectively help millions of families survive the test of poverty. In addition, the foreign assistance has help alleviate the economy of the other countries drowned in poverty. But, at present, poverty is still prevalent in the poor continents like Africa. Inadequacy of food has killed thousands of lives of young Africans. Due to the continuous poverty, the hope for development may never be realized in some poor countries.This also proves that the foreign aid being afforded by the country is not enough. Hence, this letter asks your good office to initiate a change of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s foreign aid programs and policies. Time for action should be instigated now. By your help, please coordinate with your fellow solons to include poverty among the priorities of the country. By enhancing our programs in alleviating povert y, millions of lives would be saved and changed. The period for fighting poverty should be now and be continued until a shadow of it will be eradicated.At the same time, the economic status of the country would eventually be build and the confidence of the people in their government would be strengthened. Let the Congress start renewing foreign aid programs and save many children from death caused by hunger. Sincerely, (Your Name) (Address) Reference Bread for the World & Bread for the World Institute. (2008). Bread for the World: Have Faith End Hunger. Retrieved March 20, 2009, from http://www. bread. org/page. jsp? itemID=28131907
Sunday, November 10, 2019
1.0. A report presenting market data in order to inform a cereal company Bokomo Ltd. To consider whether to expand more in the United Kingdom market. 2.0 Executive summary. This is a short report, containing marketing data on both the cereal market and a specific business, Bokomo UK. The data was obtained from secondary marketing research. BokomoÃ ´s website was one of the main reference guide. With the findings and analysis, it was recommended that Bokomo should expand their own brand products more in the UK. The PEST analysis of the UK grocery industry included in this report was used to highlight the external factors that can affect BokomoÃ¢â¬â¢s operation and interpret how these factors will influence Bokomo. Furthermore, through the market analysis it was found that KelloggÃ¢â¬â¢s and Weetabix mainly lead the cereal industry, followed by Nestle and Jordans. These companies have a wide range of brands targeted at different consumers, and they have customer loyalty, which can make it harder for newer companies to enter this sector. As mentioned before, in the cereal market there are a large variety of targeted consumers like children, women, and families. The main key trends in the market are convenient snacks and consciousness towards health. Apart from that, own branded labels are also gaining popularity as they offer consumers the same product at a cheaper price. SWOT analysis allowed us to devise the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s internal analysis. Strengths included their well-known reputation and customers such as large food retailers (TescoÃ ´s), to which they sell manufacture and packaging services. Weaknesses consist of the negative aspects the company faces, including their not household name, and general negative publicity they face in this complex sector. Opportunities were devised from the social factors from the PEST analysis as changes in consumer tastes and trends are opportunities were this company can benefit from by meeting those needs. These were alsoÃ an important part of the report as it affected the final recommendations for the company. Threats included the financial recession and increasing levels of immigration. Bokomo Foods is a major cereal producer in the United Kingdom, established around 80 years ago. Despite not being a household name, is a UK leading cereal maker and the company has achieved diversity by producing a range of own-label products. Furthermore, they manufacture branded products for large companies, as well as branded packaging services like Bag in Box, Pot or Pouch. All of these services are for leading retailers such as TescoÃ ´s, SainsburyÃ ´s and MorrisonÃ¢â¬â¢s, among many others. 3.0 Introduction + Aim. This is a report whose aim is to present market data in order to inform Bokomo plc. a cereal company, whether further expansion in the UK market is beneficial at this time. The report will identify and analyse the current business situation, using SWOT analysis, and review the macroeconomic perspective of the general UK grocery industry using PEST analysis. The SWOT analysis will help us examine the specific company factors, as it is essential to understand these in order to relate them back to the PEST and market trends. Both internal and external factors affect how Bokomo will operate now and in the future. 4.0 The grocery market environment Ã¢â¬â PEST analysis 4.1 Political Political factors have a great influence on the analysis of external factors since they are determined by the degree of government intervention in the economy. The political situation in the UK is stable. Her MajestyÃ¢â¬â¢s Government, led by Prime Minister David Cameron of the Conservative Party, is mainly concerned about the financial crisis affecting economies all over the world and to strengthen the economic position of UK globally. Through employment legislations, the government encourages retailers to provide a mix of job opportunities from flexible, lower-paid and locally-based jobs to highly-skilled, higher-paid and centrally-located jobs (Balchin, 1994). Migration has a large impact on the grocery industry, as it provides new customers, as well as opportunities for supermarkets to cater to the different culinary cultures of immigrants. Migration also leads to a change in size of labour pool, which could have an effect on the availability of workers. Latest figures from the Office for National Statistics show some 503,000 people came to live in the UK in the year ending June 2013, compared with 517,000 people the previous year (ONS.gov, 2013). 4.2 Economic Economic factors are important to consider in regard to the UK grocery market, as they are highly influential to demand, costs, prices, and profit. One of the most influential factors on the economy is high unemployment level, which decreases the effective demand for many goods, adversely affecting the demand required to produce such goods. Unemployment in the UK is at 7.1% as of January 2014, according to BBC. Another highly relevant economic factor is the grocery market size and the market growth. IGD forecast that the UK grocery market value will be worth Ã £205.9bn in 2018, a 21.3% increase on 2013 (IGD.com, 2013). This is beneficial news to Bokomo, since any expansion would be possible in regard to the availability of area in the market to expand. Another market characteristic of importance is the amount of spending on groceries in regard to overall retail expenditure in the UK. The grocery marketÃ¢â¬â¢s share accounts for 54.9p in every Ã £1 of UK retail spending (IGD.com, 2013). 4.3 Social According to Askew (2013) sales in the cereal industry have been under pressure in these past years, especially due to the changing social trends and habits of consumers. Even though sales in this market have been stable, growth has been slow. Traditional breakfast habits have changed and people consume fewer cereals because of a busier lifestyle. Also increasing number of consumers skip breakfast. An increase in female workers has also had an impact on this, which is why competition for convenient options is growingÃ more each time. An increasing number of people now look for easy and quick alternatives to sitting down and eating. However, they expect to receive the same nutrients and healthy benefits with these convenient options. A growing number of women now pay special attention to what they are eating, checking the labeling, nutritional information and ingredients of each product. Increasingly, women have a greater concern with their weight and healthy eating. Lately, the demand for childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s cereals has declined because of the sugar content it has. Cereal companies use marketing to their advantage and attract kids with unhealthy products. Their main source has been television adverts and most of the cereals for children have high sugar content with low nutritional value, a fact of which more parents are aware. Apart from consumer concerns about health, they are also becoming more aware of the environment. In this specific market, many cereal companies now control their water use, energy use, waste produced, etc. Most of them also pay close attention to the packaging of the product, like using recycled packaging. Another social factor that affects the grocery market in general is the diverse culture in UK. There are so many people with different cultures that do not choose cereals as their first choice for breakfast; instead they have their own eating habits. Therefore, it is important for the producers in the grocery market to understand the needs of the entire population and meet them. Furthermore, supermarket own-brand products have gained a lot of popularity because of the economic downturn. As consumers have limited spending power, they prefer spending on a cheaper product that allows them to get the same benefits. 4.4 Technological In the present technological age, everyone, from personal to professionalÃ interaction, is highly reliant on technology. Therefore, technological advances are important for the development and maintenance of business culture. Advances in technology have allowed the grocery industry to grow. An excellent example is the demise of Blockbuster, who was reluctant to explore online options, and their consequent refusal to buy Netflix and to adapt to changing trends lead to their bankruptcy and final closure on January 14, 2014. Online grocery shopping holds 11% of the distribution channels of the UK grocery market and predictions suggest online sales in the US will grow by 15% in 2014 to Ã £189.3 billion, while in Europe, sales are expected to rise by 18% to Ã £131.2 billion. Online shopping has helped people spend their day more efficiently and reduced the effort of having to carry heavy grocery bags. Technological advances at the supermarket has contributed to more efficient customer service and stocking efforts. The adoption of Electronic Point of Sale (EPoS), Electronic Funds Transfer Systems (EFTPoS) and electronic scanners have greatly improved the efficiency of distribution and stocking activities, with needs being communicated almost in real time to the supplier (Finch, 2004). Devices such as the self-checkout machine and Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) have permitted the grocery industry to grow and accommodate customers in an effective way. 5.0 Description of product specific market 5.1 Main competitors The leading cereal brands and the biggest competitors of Bokomo cereals in the UK are KelloggÃ¢â¬â¢s and Weetabix, reported Companies&Markets (2013). KelloggÃ¢â¬â¢s arrived in the UK in 1922 and since then has maintained its position in the market, by focusing on innovation and expansion of their products. In 2012, it had 32% of value share, leading in the UK cereal market offering a wide range of products. Over the years, KelloggÃ¢â¬â¢s has expanded to over 180 countries in the world and has around 39 brands of cereals. Weetabix, on the other hand, was launched in 1932; it has been aÃ long-standing brand and has fought its competitors to stay in this position in the UK. Weetabix has also introduced many different brands and has been innovating to adapt to consumer preferences over the years. Also Jordans, a breakfast cereal company based in Bedfordshire, founded in 1855. Although, the company produced its first cereal in 1981 called Original Crunchy, it was in the years between 2000 and 2005 when it faced rapid growth and became one of the largest cereal brands in the UK. Its great focus over the years has been on the packaging, to make it stand out in grocery stores and it is also known to be included in the Ã¢â¬Å"healthy, natural cereal segmentÃ¢â¬ Moreover, Nestle formed in 1990. It was launched as a joint venture between General Mills and Nestle S.A. and named Cereal Partners Worldwide (CPW). They offer the traditional cereals, as well as a range of brands including the world-known Cheerios. 5.2 Targeted consumers Cereal companies target many different kinds of people, although the easiest group of people to target has been children. BMSG (2013) stated they do it through advertisements on television, and somehow try to grab their attention by creating colourful, animated images and providing gifts in the cereal box each time. Another group targeted in this sector are the women because of their increasing concern for health and weight loss. Along with the children, women also form a big part of the consumers of this market. Nowadays, there are so many brands that have launched low-fat cereals and cereal bars also. Some also provide some advice, tips and dietary plans, Nytimes article (2010). Generally, families in the UK are also targeted consumers because some families still sit and have their meals together and believe that breakfast is the most important meal of the day. Apart from that, families are more concerned with what they are eating, especially making sure that the smaller ones eat healthy (Marketingmagazine(2010) Unlike maybe some students at university who would not pay so much attention to their breakfast, particularly not on a daily basis. 5.3 Key trends in the cereal market Marketingmagazine (2008) stated A rising key trend in the cereal industry is the quick and convenient Ã¢â¬Ëgood to goÃ¢â¬â¢ snacks, like cereal bars. Cereal bars have gained a lot of popularity among a wide range of audience in recent years because people not having time for breakfast. Due to this reason, there has been a significant decline in the sales of the cereal market. Companies have been mostly focusing on this convenient aspect of the market so that people donÃ¢â¬â¢t just skip breakfast entirely and their business doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t face a loss. As health also plays a crucial role in this market and recently people are more conscious about what they are putting in their body, convenient snacks are the best option as they cover both points. Nowadays, Ã¢â¬Ëgood to goÃ¢â¬â¢ snacks are not just used for breakfast but also during the entire day as an alternative to other unhealthy snacks. As a result of the sudden popularity of these snacks, now there are a great variety of them in different formats. On the other hand, the popularity of own branded labels is growing in the grocery market. It saves consumers a significant amount of money and they offer a similar or better quality product. It has resulted in a much higher level of competition in the market. 5.4 SWOT Analysis Bokomo website (2014) 5.4.1 Strengths Bokomo is UKÃ¢â¬â¢s leading cereal maker; this is a major strength as they have established a firm position in the British cereal market. They operate in various markets inside the cereal industry, providing food manufacture, retailing and catering. Bokomo can provide tasty, fresh cereal products any business is looking for, at a very competitive and cost-effective priceÃ¢â¬ . British company (although owned by South AfricaÃ¢â¬â¢s Pioneer Foods) with substantial manufacturing plants in Wellingborough and Peterborough. This means Bokomo has the resources and specialist expertise to offer unique flexible manufacturing and packaging services. Companies needing a brand-newÃ breakfast cereal raced through New Product Development (NPD) or an innovative production line set up in record time can contact Bokomo. This makes them have an advantage as nowadays there are many organisations looking for branded cereal products. Bokomo is a world-class player, and in order to maintain that s tatus they need world-class facilities. They have two factories in the UK, specifically in Wellingborough and Peterborough. These factories offer them a cutting-edge manufacturing plant, in other words, the latest, high quality, reliable and sustainable facilities. This leads to the production of high quality products. Food standards are also controlled and supported by SAP business information software, which makes customers feel more confident and secure with the products and services Bokomo delivers. BokomoÃ ´s experts in the management team and the companyÃ ´s aim of constantly innovating and removing old production facilities has helped them produce large quantities of high quality products very efficiently and to the shortest imaginable lead-times. Their customers know Bokomo as a business that main objectives is to offer high quality products. This has been maintained by using high quality ingredients and top experts in recipe formulation. They are one of only 2 manufactures that produce wheat biscuits in the Northern hemisphere enabled them to have the largest control and knowledge of this production process. Even if Bokomo UK is based in the United Kingdom, they have also diversified. Geographic market diversification has enabled them to sell in many countries around Europe, Scandinavia and even as far as the United States of America or the United Arab Emirates 5.4.2 Weaknesses Bokomo stated Ã¢â¬Å"youÃ¢â¬â¢ve possibly never heard of usÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â this means that individual customers do not know them as their own Ã¢â¬â branded products is very niche, and they are more specialized in producing in a business to business way. This is a very common weakness for companies that operate Behind the Brand. Constant changing of consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s tastes (opting for cereal bars, instant porridge or other breakfast solutions) can be considered a weakness, as its difficult and expensive to innovate and keep up to meet their needs. Difficulties to compete with well known brands cerealsÃ products such as Corn Flakes, Crunchy Nut, Special K. Have to create a delicious product that attracts customers quickly and expensive to implement the R&D and marketing. On the other hand it can also be considered and opportunity. Negative publicity to which ready-to-eat cereals have been subjected due to their high sugar content 5.4.3 Opportunities Social trends are important opportunities for Bokomo. Customers aiming towards healthy living or any other lifestyle changes means there is an opportunity towards which research and operate in. They have achieved and been keeping up to date with this as they have many products related to this trend. Great health benefits, such as products enabling the final consumer to control cholesterol levels. Multi-grain flake is another trend and potential opportunity for Bokomo. Consumers are changing their tastes towards healthier goods, and leaving behind old-fashioned sugary confections. Consumers are also increasingly purchasing Branflakes as they are considered to be great for supporting a healthy digestive system. Another trend Ã¢â¬Å"busier schedulesÃ¢â¬ , people are increasingly feeling they have no time to spend on having breakfast and snacks. Bokomo muesli is available to cater for the increasing demand for Ã¢â¬Å"breakfast on the goÃ¢â¬ . They offer them in bags and boxes, which facilitates the final customer to transport to their work place. This is an example of an opportunity for Bokomo because if they keep-up to date with trends, they will become more efficient and desirable for large retailers to purchase their products, and everyone will benefit form the sales. UK retailers are also focusing on added-value products: Add value by introducing natural minerals and vitamins into whole grain wheat and making the final product more healthy and nutritional. Own-label share of the business mix for large supermarket retailers. It is a main direction for Bokomo to go towards to as they can increase considerably their business operations, as the focus is now towards manufacturing own-label and branded products. Bokomo has realized the immense potential for expansion as the large retailers keep increasing the sale of this type of good. Ã¢â¬ËOne-stopÃ¢â¬â¢ shopping, or shopping in large supermarkets were customers can find any type of product in the same building has beenÃ beneficial for Bokomo as these businesses are their main clients. If they increase their sales, Bokomo will also benefit from this, as they will sell them more and so increase revenue will mean increase levels of profitability. 5.4.4 Threats The cereal industry offers products which are considered to be relatively expensive, which can be easily replaced with simpler breakfast choices such as bread. The financial recession has been a main factor for the decrease in expenditure, specially concerning families, as there are other much cheaper products to replace the cereals and cereal bars. High unemployment has made a substantial impact on the demand for such goods, adversely affecting the demand required to product those goods. Increasing levels of immigration specially in the UK, has meant that they do not have the same culinary cultures and so those breakfast products will not satisfy the needs and wants of everyone. 5.0 Recommendations With the above analysis it is better for the company to target smaller retailers where their own labeled products wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be affected by competitive brands like KelloggÃ¢â¬â¢s, and when they achieve this they should concentrate more on developing their own branded products around the UK. As mentioned above in the SWOT analysis, cereal products are considered to be expensive due to the added value implemented on them so it would be better to decrease these levels of adding value and start off with lower prices, in recession periods. 6.0 Limitations Bokomo website allowed us to obtain up-to-date and official information and statistics of the company. The information was limited because the company sold themselves and emphasized on its positive aspects because they have to promote their brand to the consumers. A part from this we also used other sources including, online articles about food industry, which helped us, get an un-biased view of the company and the cereal market as a whole. TheÃ drawback of using other sources or secondary research was that the methods used were unknown so we examined the most official and valid sources. 7.0 References Askew, K. 2013. Breakfast cereal: Are cereal sales going soggy? [Online] Available at: http://www.just-food.com/analysis/are-cereal-sales-in-developed-markets-going-soggy_id123417.aspx Bainbridge, J. 2010. Sector insight: Breakfast cereals | Marketing Magazine. [Online] Available at: http://www.marketingmagazine.co.uk/article/990662/sector-insight-breakfast-cereals Bainbridge, J. 2008. Sector Insight: Cereal bars | Marketing Magazine. [Online] Available at: http://www.marketingmagazine.co.uk/article/817580/sector-insight-cereal-bars Balchin, A. (1994) Part-time Workers in the Multiple Retail Sector: Small Change from Employment Protection Legislation? Employee Relations, Vol. 16 Iss: 7, pp.43 Ã¢â¬â 57 BBC News. 2014. UK unemployment rate drops to 7.1%. [Online] Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-25841570 BERKELEY, C. 2013. Cereal companies leverage online marketing to target children with sugary products | Berkeley Media Studies Group. [Online] Available at: http://w ww.bmsg.org/newsroom/news-releases/cereal-companies-leverage-online-marketing-to-target-children-with-sugary-products Bodimeade, M. 2013. UK breakfast cereals market dominated by KelloggÃ¢â¬â¢s and Weetabix. [Online] Available at: http://www.companiesandmarkets.com/News/Food-and-Drink/UK-breakfast-cereals-market-dominated-by-Kelloggs-and-Weetabix/NI6602 Bokomo.co.uk. n.d. About | Bokomo. [Online] Available at: http://bokomo.co.uk/about Business News Daily (November 22, 2013) PEST Analysis: Definition and Examples, Available at: http://www.businessnewsdaily.com/5512-pest-analysis-definition-examples-templates.html Euromonitor.com. 2013. Breakfast Cereals in the United Kingdom. [Online] Available at: http://www.euromonitor.com/breakfast-cereals-in-the-united-kingdom/report Igd.com. 2013. UK Grocery Retailing. [Online] Available at: http://www.igd.com/our-expertise/Retail/retail-outlook/3371/UK-Grocery-Retailing/ Internetretailing.net (March 18, 2014) UK retailers expected to make
Thursday, November 7, 2019
buy custom Love in the Time of Cholera essay Introduction Love in the Time of Cholera is a novel that was written by Gabriel Garcia Marquez. This novel revolves around a love affair between Florentino Arizo and his ex-wife Fermina Daza. These are the main characters in the novel. Other characters include Lorenzo Daza, Jeremiah Saint-Amour, Transito Ariza, Dona Blanca and Miss Barbara Lynch among others (Marquez 2007). Florentino Arizo Florentino Arizo was an old-man aged seventy eight. He was deeply and secretly in love with Fermina Daza for an extraordinarily long time after their separation. Florentino declared to Fermina his love for her twice, though she declined. He declared to her eternal fidelity and everlasting love. Florentino suffers from this secret love in a severe manner simiar to how one would suffer from cholera. He, however, manages to tolerate and to carry on with his physical and emotional pains. Florentino has been infected by a persistent passion for Fermina (Fahy 2003). This condition started when Fermina rejected him through divorce several years ago. He is portrayed as an impassioned sex addict who is obsessed with love. His addiction to sex forces him to have sex with other women in order to overcome his emotional pains and headaches that result from his obsessive love for Fermina. He uses sex as a means of forgetting his psychological torture and mental illness, despite his declaration of eternal fidelity and deep love for Fermina (Reinholtz Bloom 2010). In the second chapter, Florentino is very ill and at the same time worried about the response he would get from Fermina after his second declaration of love for her. He was sick in the heart and stomach. His sickness rose above physical pains and drifted to psychological and mental disturbances. His love for Fermina was the source of all his anguish. He further complicated his emotional pain when he ate flowers and drank perfume, hoping that he would be able to identify Ferminas scent. When Fermina turned down his second profession of love, he becomes more ill. Gabriel describes him as a more dead than a dead man (Marquez 2007). His old age also worsened his psychological sufferings. He did not give up loving Fermina. He enjoyed the suffering of his love for Fermina. Finally, he lies calmly waiting for his death after his undying love for Fermina became fruitless. In conclusion, as Gabriel points out, love is an emotional and physical disease. It is a sickness, just as cholera, that requires shrewd handling and management. Buy custom Love in the Time of Cholera essay
Tuesday, November 5, 2019
Word Choice Dessert vs. Desert - Proofread My Paper Word Choice: Dessert vs. Desert WeÃ¢â¬â¢ve all been there. YouÃ¢â¬â¢re in a restaurant with friends. You finish your main course and order a Ã¢â¬Å"desert.Ã¢â¬ Moments later, the waiter returns and buries your table beneath a truckload of sand, ruining the evening for everyone. Mmmm sand. [Photo: Simon A. Eugster]OK, this probably hasnÃ¢â¬â¢t happened in real life. But thatÃ¢â¬â¢s because Ã¢â¬Å"desertÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"dessertÃ¢â¬ are pronounced differently enough that you wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t normally mix them up. Written down itÃ¢â¬â¢s different, and we see these terms confused on a regular basis. Sometimes this is a just a typo (so remember to proofread!) but it can also be an issue with spelling, so make sure you know the difference between these words. Dessert (Sweet and Delicious) This is the easy one, since Ã¢â¬Å"dessertÃ¢â¬ only has one meaning. Specifically, itÃ¢â¬â¢s used to describe sweet food eaten after the main part of a meal: For dessert, I ate my own body weight in ice cream. As such, you should only use Ã¢â¬Å"dessertÃ¢â¬ in reference to food. Getting hungrier now You sometimes see people write Ã¢â¬Å"just desserts,Ã¢â¬ but this is actually a mistake; the correct term is Ã¢â¬Å"just deserts,Ã¢â¬ meaning Ã¢â¬Å"that which is deserved.Ã¢â¬ By comparison, Ã¢â¬Å"just dessertsÃ¢â¬ would mean something like Ã¢â¬Å"only puddings,Ã¢â¬ which is only useful if you run a diner for people with a sugar addiction. Desert (Dry and Sandy) The most common use of Ã¢â¬Å"desertÃ¢â¬ is to identify a place with little to no rainfall, typically somewhere hot and sandy: The Mojave is the hottest desert in the United States. It really is very, very hot there. [Photo: Theschmallfella]We also use this sense of Ã¢â¬Å"desertÃ¢â¬ as an adjective, such as when describing something associated with the desert: From his campaign in North Africa during WWII, Rommel became known as the Ã¢â¬Å"Desert Fox.Ã¢â¬ Meanwhile, the verb Ã¢â¬Å"desertÃ¢â¬ is pronounced a little differently despite having the same spelling. This sense of Ã¢â¬Å"desertÃ¢â¬ means Ã¢â¬Å"to abandonÃ¢â¬ : The prisoner got away after the guard deserted his post. Dessert or Desert? ItÃ¢â¬â¢s easy to avoid mistakes with Ã¢â¬Å"dessertÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"desertÃ¢â¬ as long as you remember that Ã¢â¬Å"dessertÃ¢â¬ only has one meaning (it becomes even easier if you imagine the double-Ã¢â¬Å"sÃ¢â¬ in Ã¢â¬Å"dessertÃ¢â¬ stands for Ã¢â¬Å"something sweetÃ¢â¬ ). Once youÃ¢â¬â¢ve ruled that out, whether youÃ¢â¬â¢re using Ã¢â¬Å"desertÃ¢â¬ as a noun or a verb, the spelling is the same. Just keep in mind that: Dessert (noun) = The final course in a meal (Ã¢â¬Å"something sweetÃ¢â¬ ) Desert (noun) = A dry, sandy area of land Desert (verb) = To leave or abandon
Sunday, November 3, 2019
Weber's Sociology. The Ideal-Type Explaining Social Phenomena - Essay Example To do so however, it is not sufficient to observe action of one individual or collect data from a group of individuals. It requires selection of method to address the peculiar question the action raises (Schtz, Walsh & Lehnert, 1967 5). Weber does not find description alone sufficient; there should be understanding from an individual action. A few causal explanations could be made e. g. I am certain the window broke because it was struck by a rock - I saw it myself; but I can not predict on the basis or rules or laws as to what blows will break which windows. At the most a generalisation like 'Windows are fragile, and fragile things tend to break when struck hard enough, other conditions being right.' (Ringer, 1997-85)... Weber's method of understanding meaning of an action is by construction of ideal types. These are not statistical averages since these depend on unusual questions being asked at that time and they are created as per the methodological demands of these questions (Sch tz et al. 1967 5). The article focuses on Weber's concept of ideal-type and rationality as a tool for understanding social phenomena through interpretive sociological research. An ideal type is a mental construct or picture which the investigator uses to address the reality. The ideal type is different from 'ideals' and it is ideal in coherent way. For an investigator the ideal type is an instrument that he or she uses to give a meaning to the diverse reality. Its usefulness lies in "its success in revealing concrete cultural phenomena in their interdependence, their causal conditions and their significance" (Weber 1949 as in Andersen & Kaspersen, 2000, p 79). The investigator designs an ideal type by " the one sided accentuation of one or more point of view and by synthesis of a great many diffuse, discrete more or less present or occasionally absent concrete individual phenomena, which are arranged to those one- sidedly emphasised viewpoints into a unified analytical construct" (Weber 1949 as in Andersen & Kaspersen, 2000, p79). Weber's definition may be understood by a simple example. Suppose A and B are playing chess. Their behaviour is oriented to an action model, M. The model is not restricted to A and B only, it is an ideal type chess player. Schutz et al (1967) explain that beyond their individuality as chess player, the other concrete individual living experiences of A and B are neither identical nor are being compared here. Andersen & Kaspersen (2000) clarifies that the ideal type are human construct and do not have any counterpart in reality. The social laws are examples of ideal type. Knowledge of law is not the knowledge of reality; these are path leading to understand the reality. The origin of ideal type is attributed to the finding that social sciences lack the causal laws and experimental regularities of natural sciences. Weber cautioned social scientists against using historical constructs as such for explaining reality in contemporary times; he rather advises them designing their own construct using these as basis. The historical constructs show beliefs and attitudes prevalent at that time. Human behaviour is not predictable or constant phenomenon (Ringer, 1997, p110). There are always individual elements associated with it. Weber had maintained that we keep ourselves to certain aspects of reality while exclude other since the chosen aspects are relevant to our values. We thus reduce the complexity of data by constructing abstract concepts containing only
Friday, November 1, 2019
Business Simulation in Motor Industry - Research Paper Example The first model caters to the market segment - City Size and Under 25 age group. The car is 3/5 Door Hatch Type with a 4 Cylinder Engine. It has an option of Superior Sound System/iPod. Buyers under 25 yrs of age are mostly single individuals with low to average income. They normally use the car as basic transportation for everyday activities. The second model caters to the market segment - Medium Size and 25 to 40 age group. The car is a 2/4 Door Saloon/Estate Type with a Large 6-8 Cylinder Engine. It has several options such as Multi Location Airbags, Dual Fuel Operation, 6-Speed Gearbox, Speed Limiter, Electronic Stability Control, and Safety Package. Buyers in this age group are mostly average income individuals who have high preference in comfort, speed, style and safety. As a new entrant to the motor industry, the corporate strategy of the company is cost leadership. The car models will be positioned in the market as low priced in order to effectively penetrate the customer base. The goal of the pricing strategy is to create a company's share in the total market. The first model will be priced at 11,007.08 while the second model will be priced at 18,216.85. However, even at a low price, the company forecasts an 18% gross profit margin. At the first year of production, the company will be manufacturing in one factory. It will be producing 50,000 units of each model. The factory will be employing at full capacity of 4,000 workers. The average wage offered to each employee would be 400, which is higher than the minimum wage per week in the industry. In order to increase productivity, the company will initially invest in 20 units of automation. Forecast Production and Sales Model 1 Model 2 Total Model cost per car [Mm] 7,200.00 9,385.00 Design cost per car [Md] 888.00 1,553.50 Options cost per car(1) [Mo] 450.00 3,486.50 Material cost per car [M=Mm+Md+Mo] 8,538.00 14,425.00 Productivity (cars/worker/year) [Pr] 41 39 Workers per car [Wk = 1 / Pr] 0.024 0,026 Weekly wage [W] 400.00 400.00 Labour cost per car [L = Wk*W*50] 487.80 512.82 Total cost per car [C = L + M] 9,025.80 14,937.80 Selling price [P] 11,007.08 18.216.85 Gross Margin % [= 100*(P - C)/P] 18% 18% Forecast Sales (units) [S] 50,000 50,000 100,000 Total Sales Income m [= S*P] 550.35 910.84 1,461.19 Forecast production (units) [N] 50,000 50,000 100,000 Total Material Cost m [= M*N] 426.90 721.25 1,148.15 Total Labour Cost m [= L*N] 24.39 25.64 50.03 Profit Forecast ( million) Income Costs Total Sales Income 1,461.19 Total Material Cost 1,148.15 Total Labour Cost 50.03 Gross Profit 263.01 Fixed Overhead(2) 124.11 Promotion 40.00 Depreciation(2) 66.00 Operating Profit 32.90 Net Interest Payment 14.00 Pre-tax profit 18.90 Tax (30%) 5.67 Post-tax profit 13.23 Cash Flow Forecast ( million) Cash In Cash Out Opening Bank Balance 500.00 Total Sales Income 1,461.19 Total Material Cost 1,148.15 Total Labour Cost 50.03 Fixed Overhead(2) 124.11 Promotion Cost 40.00 Factory Cost 650.00 Automation Expenditure 10.00 Tax Payment 5.67 Balance before Loan (66.77) New Loan 200.00 Closing Bank Balance 133.23 NX0441 Business Game Decision Form Semester 1 2009/10 Seminar Group . Team Number .